The sense of light and air formed by the stirring brush strokes and the alternating cool and warm light sources tends to disintegrate the form, thus creating infinite space and unpredictable magical light. The painter Joseph Mallord William Turner was keen to capture order in the force of turbulence and chaos, which is closely related to scientific discoveries that change our original perception of nature. 

Technological progress has brought about changes in the times, viewing has become a visual metaphor, and a new language has been born in an attempt to explore and explain the hidden forces of nature. Lofty is not only the magnificent power of nature but also presented in creative ways for human beings to cope with nature's challenge.


 图1 J. M. W.透纳 蒸汽船驶离港口, 1842

J. M. W. Turner  Steam-Boat off a Harbour’s Mouth, 1842


Green Portal | 绿色门户

为了增强线性公园和街道的空气流动,SURGE延续了主导风向和城市肌理,正北轴向38度逆时针偏转,与现有城市规划相呼应。受当地独特气候环境和传统阿拉伯美学启发,设计方案试图创造一个具有高度美学与生态价值的绿洲,配合以卓越的工程及能源领域前沿技术以形成场地内良好的小气候,保持生态平衡,并为周边区域提供能源。SURGE将成为Green finger “绿手指”公园系统的有效连接点和阿布扎比马斯达尔市划时代的新地标。

To enhance air movement in linear parks and the streets, SURGE followed the direction of the prevailing wind and urban fabric, 38 degrees counter-clockwise of the north axis corresponding to existing planning. Inspired by local climate and the unique traditional Arab aesthetics, the proposal is trying to create an oasis of high aesthetic and ecological value, which is supported by extraordinary technologies in the field of engineering and energy to create a good microclimate in the site, maintain the ecological balance, and provide energy for the surrounding area. SURGE will be an effective connection in the Green finger park system and a new epochal landmark of Masdar City, Abu Dhabi.


Resource Habitat | 能源栖息地


SURGE combines several cutting-edge technological innovations into a simple design that captures the infinite energy contained in nature through a variety of energy collection methods. The annual output of 9,582,345MWh of clean energy will be used by the surrounding residential, commercial and research and development institutions, and will become the driving core of the region in the future to attract the convergence of technology and resources, creates a natural, cultural and technological habitat, which is in line with the UAE's ambition and vision for future exploration.


Connected Entity | 连接的整体


SURGE's unique scale and visual image reminds people of the enormous, awesome power of nature, triggers people's perception and thinking of existence. As a "shaded oasis", this is a place for passage, gathering, relaxation, and contemplation. The proposal combines historical and future perspectives to express respect to the great heritage of Arab art and culture. The energy output of the utilization of natural resources reflects the pursuit of human exploring and co-existing with nature. Innovation and progress are the results of the combination of people and ideas in new ways. A world range hub, an open, respectful and inclusive "core" where diversity, ideas, and inspiration come together, in here SURGE has great potentials in innovation and viability of sustainable developments.


图2 场地与周边区域连接

Site connections to the surroundings


Environment Oriented Approach | 环境驱动设计





After studying the local wind/water/solar energy enrichment, our team came to the following conclusions:

1. Solar energy: The local solar radiation amount is about 5.6k-5.9k per month on average, which is enough to meet the upper limit of energy collected by photovoltaic materials.

2. Wind energy: From the perspective of the whole year, the average wind speed is about 25km/h, and it is dominated by the northwest wind across the whole site, which also lays a good foundation for wind collection.

Therefore, in terms of energy, our team chose the stable solar power generation as the main energy source, the flapping friction Nano-generator generating mechanical energy by wind energy and the piezoelectric pavement collecting the mechanical energy of pedestrian walking pressure as the additional energy source.

图3 马斯达尔市全年太阳辐射与风玫瑰

Annual total radiation and wind rose of Masdar City


Environmental Impact | 环境影响





An integral part of the design process was figuring out a way to conceptualize an installation that could harness energy but cause minimal disturbance to the site. Because the site is not an environmentally sensitive habitat area, large scale installations can be built on the sandy soil of the site by applying independent foundations for each column to ensure structural stability.

The unit itself captures light and winds, connected as a light-wind penetrating shelter that filters violent sunlight, meanwhile enhance air movement, channeling pleasant breeze in the site, reduce water demand for irrigation of the park, which is suited to a hot and dry climate.

SURGE does not produce emissions – greenhouse or otherwise – nor any physical or airborne waste products. The structure is composed of recycled and renewable materials and, whenever possible, local materials with low transit impact. ------The steel structure is composed of recycled steel bar stock welded into custom shapes and is designed for clean deconstruction. PVC boards are biodegradable and can be recycled. Steel cable is locally available and easy to transport. Monocrystalline silicon PV glass panels, PVC boards, and fabrics are distributed locally. The fabric can be made from recycled plastics such as water bottles and containers, reducing the amount of waste and landfills.

Due to the site is located in a crowded area, the piezoelectric pavement of the park should provide easy construction and recyclability. The device is made of aluminum, polypropylene, and steel which is easily accessible in the local building market. The device offers maintainability so that if a power-generation pavement is damaged, the device can be recycled.




SURGE回应当地气候与文化,平衡美学、经济与安全。长宽高为300m*70m*45m,平均净空高度为25米,SURGE覆盖场地19600 m²(投影面积)。主体结构由相同的能源收集单元彼此连接成链,降低成本与施工难度,并且易于产生空间和光线的变化。单元最大化收集来自各个方向的能源。透明材料使得大尺度投影的装置体量感更轻。超细柱提供了可靠的结构支撑以及通透的视野,使得自然通风和人的自由活动成为可能。(图4)

SURGE responses to local climate and culture, while balancing aesthetics, economy, and safety. With the size of 300m*70m*45m(average high clearance 25m), SURGE covers the site with 19600m² projected area. The main shelter is composed of identical energy harvesting units interconnected in chains, which is low cost, simple in construction, and also adaptable to variations in space and light. The unit maximizes the collection of energy in both upward and downward directions. Transparency in the material makes this large scale shading sculpture feel lighter. Ultra-fine columns provide reliable support and unobstructed viewing, make natural ventilation and people's free activities possible.  

图4 方案爆炸图

Exploded site plan



Basic Structure and Mechanism of SURGE | 结构与机制



Energy harvesting unit is sized 16.6m*6.6m*2.6m, each unit is supported by a set of branching columns, with gravity converging on a spherical joint which is attached to the ultra-fine column with a diameter of 30cm. The spherical joints are connected by steel cables with a diameter of 1cm. Cables are inside the structural cavity and are conducted into the power management box underground. The gap formed by chains vertical swing plays the role of light transmission, ventilation, and wind pressure balance. 

Applying cutting-edge and preliminary marketable energy technologies, combined with innovative breakthroughs in engineering, SURGE maximizes the collection of natural energy, collecting both solar, wind and human power by highly integrated design, generates 9,582,345MWh clean energy annually.


图5 局部剖轴测图

Part perspective axonometric view drawing

图6 能源收集单元图解:太阳能与风能收集装置

Device for solar and wind power(energy harvesting unit)


1.Spherical Solar Tech | 球状光伏

Sphelar® BIPV系列产品相比传统太阳能收集设备可以提供更多的产出,产能效率也更高。在水平向装置和需要大面积视觉通透的情况下表现优秀。(图7-图8)

Sphelar® BIPV series yield more energy output and have higher efficiency than conventional solars, with excellent performance in the case of horizontal installation and high see-throughness.

图7 Sphelar®️球状光伏BIPV系列

Sphelar®️ BIPV series


图8 Sphelar®️球状光伏BIPV系列应用场景

Sphelar®️ BIPV series applying scene



Based on crystalline silicon balls, Sphelar® module yields more in cumulative energy. Not only the photoelectric conversion efficiency but also how much incoming light the cells can absorb during a certain period is important in practical use. What is more, Sphelar® module is more practical solar since it is supposed to be less dependent on heat and partial shadowing than conventional solars.

图9 Sphelar®️球状光伏原理图解

Sphelar®️ Spherical Solar Tech Schematic


2.Triboelectric Nanogenerator (TENG) | 摩擦纳米发电机





TENG obtains power by wind-driven flapping. 

The upper surface of each rigid flapping unit will be subject to upward wind pressure after strong winds due to the theory of fluid continuity and Bernoulli's theorem[1]. When the upward force exceeds the gravity, the slapper will be lifted upward. At this time, due to the uneven wind pressure, the wind will quickly enter the lower surface of the flapping plate, and the flapping plate will fall. As a result, the flapping plate can perform a quick and periodic flap under the wind speed exceeding a certain threshold. 

For the loose flexible flapping unit, the fabric will repeatedly flap the upper layer of PVC under the action of wind[2].

In the process of flapping, according to the basic theory of triboelectric nanogenerator[3], materials with different electron gain and loss abilities can generate potential difference after contact and separation. As a result, our device can steadily collect the electricity generated by the conversion of wind and solar energy.


图10 刚性摩擦纳米发电机组装实验模块

Fabricated rigid TENG


图11 柔性摩擦纳米发电机组装实验模块

Fabricated flexible TENG

图12 摩擦纳米发电机原理图解

Triboelectric Nanogenerator Schematic


3. Piezoelectric Pavement | 压电路面铺装



The device is designed based on the four technical requirements. The device structure is illustrated in Fig. 13. It is mainly composed of a rigid bearing shell, protection pad, transducer and its carrier substrate, and other components.

The piezoelectric material is embedded in the pavement in the form of cells, each of which is connected by a substrate. At the same time, a rubber pad is embedded in the bottom of the unit to reduce damage and ensure resonance frequency. As a supplement of energy, piezoelectric works perfectly in a densely populated area like the site, combined with modulated pavement design.

图13 压电路面原理图解

Piezoelectric Pavement Schematic


图14 压电路面组装实验模块

 Fabricated Piezoelectric Pavement

4. Ultra-fine Column | 超细柱


Apply the mechanical principle of "Tensegrity" to the compression of a column, and decompose the single force on the cross-section of a traditional column into tension and compression. The balance of forces in the two directions provided extra help to resist the deformation of the column and exceeded the limit of the critical force of Euler to form an ultra-fine column with a heavy load and a small section size.


图15 超细柱

 Fabricated Ultra-fine Column


Capacity & Cost Estimation | 产能与成本计算

1. Device for wind energy 风能装置 


For the contact separation type friction nano-generator, by analyzing its capacitance change and solving the ordinary differential equation, the following equation can be obtained:

在σ-surface tribo-charge密度, S-areal介质的大小,d 0有效介电层的厚度,ε0-vacuum介电常数,x (t)——板块之间距离。

为了简化模型,我们使用相似的工作[4]来估计我们的设备在理想条件下的生产率,得到每平方米刚性拍打功率为2.86W/m2,柔性拍打功率为2.88 W/m2。

Where σ-surface tribo-charge density, S-areal size of the dielectric, d 0 -effective thickness of the dielectric layer, ε 0-vacuum permittivity, x(t)-distance between plates.

To simplify the model, we use similar work[4] to estimate our device productivity under ideal conditions and obtain the rigid slapping power per square meter is 2.86W/m2, the flexible slapping power is 2.88 W/m2.


2. Device for solar energy 太阳能装置


For photovoltaic panels, we use spherical power's BIPV series with a peak power of 24.6w per square meter[5].


3. Piezoelectric Pavement 压电铺装 


For piezoelectric pavement according to various theoretical calculation methods for different connection modes and our team choose one in this project[6]. The theoretical calculation formula of transducers in series is shown as follows.

Pos-output电源在系列中,并行Pop-output电源,d33-压电系数, Fm-acting负载,ω-acting频率,在传感器并联或串联的数量。h-transducers厚度。A-transducers区域。ε_33 ^ T-dielectric常数。R-load阻力。


where Pos-output power in series, Pop-output power in parallel, d33-piezoelectric coefficient, Fm-acting load, ω-acting frequency, n-the number of transducers in parallel or series. h-transducers thickness. A-transducers area. ε_33 ^ T -dielectric constant. R-load resistance.

Under the condition that loading is 0.7MPa and pedestrian contact frequency is 15hz, it can be calculated that the power of piezoelectric pavement per square meter is 2.4w.


4. Integrative Computation 综合计算

考虑到拍板的脆性、整体承载和局部风势,我们将风速阈值限制在6m/s,拍板频率估计为1hz,襟翼升力系数估计为1.5。因此,可以获得理想的总功率303868 w (wp)。(图16)

After considering the brittleness of the flapping plate, overall load-bearing and local wind conditions, we limited the windspeed threshold to 6m/s and estimated the slapping frequency to be 1hz, while lift coefficient of the wing is estimated as 1.5. Thus, the total ideal power can be obtained as 303868w(wp).

图16 能源产出

Energy Output






Considering the local wind and solar environment:

Under sunlight, the conversion efficiency of similar products of Sphelar® is 12.7%. It can be known that the local solar energy environment does not exceed the output limit of photovoltaic panels, so the overall productivity can be estimated with the conversion efficiency.

The average amount of solar radiation in the airport and the seaside road is 69550wh. Thus, the equivalent power is 2.45w.

For the rigid flapping model, the windspeed threshold of operation is 6m/s, which does not depend on the wind direction. According to the wind rose, the wind speed over 6m/s accounts for about 1/6.

Meanwhile, according to local wind speed information, the average wind speed is 13.55km/h (about3.76m/s). Therefore, the flexible flapping model can be estimated according to the average wind speed.


图17 风玫瑰(一年内风速大于6m/s)

Windrose (wind speed > 6m/s in 1 year)



To simulate the performance of our design in the local environment, our team combined the wind, solar energy and the flow of people (estimated value) of Masdar city to estimate the annual and monthly production capacity and make statistics as shown in the table above. It shows that TENG has excellent performance and potential in wind energy collection combined with SURGE's highly integrated design.

图18 全年能源产出

Annual Energy Output

5. Cost Estimation 成本估算

为了满足主办方每瓦装机容量不超过20美元的要求,需要获取阿布扎比当地一些主要的材料/人力价格的资料。以下是Turner & Townsend基于2017年调查得出的概念估计(粗略的数量级)。从那时起可能在这一估计水平的平均幅度之内有所增加,个别材料会根据全球价格做轻微调整。

To meet the requirement of not exceed $20 USD per watt of installed capacity, prices of some main materials/activities in Abu Dhabi is needed. Here is a conceptual estimate (rough order of magnitude) based on the survey in 2017 by Turner & Townsend. The escalation from that time is probably within the margin of averages for this level of estimation. Some materials are adjusted up slightly according to worldwide prices.

图19 成本估算

Cost Estimation

Data Source:

Power Management | 能源管理


What follows is the electrical signal processing and energy storage process of the power generation system. Due to the complexity of electrical signals generated by TENG and piezoelectric pavements, signal modulation in signal-based circuits is not convenient. So in the system, we use ac/dc rectifier to convert an alternating current of different frequencies to direct current and then use dc/ac inverter to convert direct current to alternating current with voltage and frequency required by the grid. Besides, to ensure the stability of the power system, we have set up sensors and control units respectively in the three parts of the power generation system, power conversion and power inflow into the grid. Solar energy, wind energy, and human energy sensors are managed by an integrated control center. As a result, our power management system will be able to integrate the generated electricity into the grid and effectively deal with various abnormal situations.

图20 能源管理图解

Power Management Schematic





The apocalypse of floods destroy humanity exists in many religious myths. In the contemporary context, humanity is confronted with a physical and mental moment of conflict: the blind optimism of consumerism and technicism against socio-ecosystems. Critically engaging the emerging Abu Dhabi context of Masdar City and other tabula rasa territories, this project tries to propose an antidote and refuge to the frenetic future-scape internationalism of the rapidly developing Arabian coast. SURGE creates a tensioned sense of balance, a manifesto of this dialectical relationship. The touch and perception of conflict may be the driving force, to imagine with heart and mind, of brave new horizons.


References | 参考文献

[1] Munson BR, Okiishi T H, Huebsch WW, et al. Fluid mechanics[M]. Singapore: Wiley, 2013.

[2] Wang S, MuX, Wang X, et al. Elasto-Aerodynamics-Driven Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Scavenging Air-Flow Energy[J]. ACS Nano, 2015, 9(10): 9554-9563.

[3] Niu S, Wang S, Lin L, et al. Theoretical study of contact-mode triboelectric nanogenerators as an effective power source[J]. Energy & environmental science, 2013, 6(12): 3576-3583.

[4] Yang B, Zeng W, Peng Z H, et al. A fully verified theoretical analysis of contact‐mode triboelectric nanogenerators as a wearable power source[J]. Advanced Energy Materials,2016, 6(16):1600505.

[5] Nakata J.Spherical cells promise to expand applications for solar power[J]. Asia Electronics Industry (AEI), 2001, 2001: 44.

[6] Wang C, Zhao J, Li Q, et al. Optimization design and experimental investigation of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices for pavement[J]. Applied Energy, 2018,229: 18-30.[1]


Special Thanks to | 特别致谢



李舟 教授,博士生导师



张勇 总院副院长,结构所所长,总工程师


Beijing Institute of Nano-energy and Nano-systems, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Shenzhen General Institute of Architectural Design and Research Co., Ltd (Beijing Branch) Institute of Structural Design




孙鸣飞,中国建筑设计研究院 主任设计师

晁盛宇,中科院纳米能源与系统研究所 博士研究生